Five basic criteria for selection and application of pumps
June 15 2013 -
There are a lot of questions to be answered when choosing a pump. I have found that there are five basic criteria that need to be determined before any selection is done, or application of the same. Some of these will sound obvious, and some of the companies and individuals may say they support all of these criteria. But they take short cuts in making the choice in order to save money.
One of the most important factors that should be considered in the design (and operation) of any turbomachinery is the thermal structure (or the thermal arrangement). Appropriate materials, cooling systems and insulations (or thermal shields) should be selected for turbomachinery based on a proper thermal analysis.
Reducing steam turbine costs while increasing efficiency
March 24 2012 -
For as long as steam turbines have existed, there have been two major trends for drivers in steam turbine development and innovation: achieving higher efficiency and ensuring longer life span and reliability. In the recent decades, several additional drivers have come into play and have become increasingly important contributors in determining steam turbine and power plant configurations. These factors include climate change concerns, cost pressure and shorter delivery time, which are quite typical manifestations of the intensifying competitive pressure within the industry.
Evaluation and purchasing of turbo-compressors should involve an optimization process with respect to full array of compressor data. Otherwise, equipment may not be suitable over the full operating cases, in meeting reliability, maintainability, availability, commercial terms or power requirements for which the client expects.
The early promise of CFD-based design approaches was that the predictable nature of the calculations would enable studies of multiple gas turbine combustor designs prior to prototyping. As part of the development flow, simulation could predict important system attributes such as stability and emissions performance and reduce the need for costly experimental testing. Results vary widely, however, among organizations.
The industrial steam turbine has to change with the times. Competition pushes OEMs to develop new and more efficient turbines. In power generation the picture is more or less clear. This month Turbomachinery magazine published an article that said that Seimens, GE, Alstom and Mitsubishi have all surpassed the 60% combined cycle efficiency milestone. What then is a realistic target for industrial steam turbines?
And how do we achieve this target for turbines of 5MW, 10MW or 40MW?
Turbomachinery flows that contain solid particles represent an undesirable yet often inescapable condition because of practical operating considerations. Dust, sand, fly ash, iron oxide, process-originated materials, and debris from abradable seals or blade rubbing are examples of the varied composition of these solid particles.